Professor Hagfors obtained his Ph.D. at the University of Oslo in 1959 on problems relating to scattering from turbulent and meteor-induced plasma irregularities. Immediately thereafter he went to Stanford University as a postdoc to work on thermal plasma fluctuations in the ionosphere and on radar astronomy of the moon. Since then he has been associated with research projects somehow related to these topics at MIT Lincoln Laboratory as a staff member, at the Jicamarca Observatory in Peru as director, at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico as director. He was the first director of the EISCAT Association, and was responsible for the construction of the EISCAT Observatory in Northern Scandinavia. During his tenure as director of EISCAT he was also Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Trondheim. He came to Cornell in 1982 as Professor of Electrical Engineering and Astronomy, and Director of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC) which runs the Arecibo Observatory. He has lead a design and planning effort to renew and modify the Arecibo Observatory to greatly improve its performance characteristics. The implementation of this program is now nearing completion. In 1992 he became Director at the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany.
Professor Hagfors' current research interests include HF induced modification of the ionosphere, radar astronomy of the solar system, radar observations of planetary surfaces from space craft, observational techniques in radio observations, scattering from rough surfaces, fluctuations in dusty plasmas, antennas, radio wave propagation.
Memberships and honors: American Astronomical Union American Geophysical Union Institute of Electrical \& Electronics Engineers International Union for Radio Science Miscellaneous European professional societies
VanderPol Gold Medal URSI, Fellow IEEE, Humboldt Society Senior Scientist Award, Fellow Royal Astronomical Society (UK), Member Norwegian Academy of Science, Member Norwegian Academy of Engineering. Ionospheric Research: Spin-offs into Other Fields.
Ionospheric research has had a profound influence on a number of other fields. From early observations of the height of the ionosphere came the first radar devices. In the effort to understand the radio echoes observed the theory of radio wave propagation in a magnetized plasma was developed essentially marking the beginning of plasma physics. Observation of fading due to the irregular structure of the ionosphere has provided important insight into the cause of scintillation of radio sources an important factor in many types of observations such as in the discovery of the first pulsars. The reflection from an irregular surface developed to explain properties of ionospheric waves has found wide application in the interpretation of radar echoes from astronomical bodies as well as in the understanding of the performance of reflector antennas. The development of incoherent scatter radar, described in several past Waynick lectures, has provided important impulses to linear kinetic plasma theory. Observation of plasma instabilities in the ionosphere both natural and induced by high power radio waves have contributed to deeper understanding of non-linear processes in plasmas. The study of the ionosphere, originally for the purpose of radio communication, has thus had a profound influence on a number of fields of science and engineering, and has been a particularly fruitful field for the education of students with interests straddling several different fields.